Bank contribution: how to competently invest money and not lose it in modern realities
According to the Bank of Russia, at the beginning of 2019, credit organizations attracted more than 46 billion rubles in deposits in rubles and foreign currency, as well as precious metals, from the individuals and legal entities, which demonstrates the high demand for this method of preserving and increasing their money. At the same time, statistics clearly indicate that individuals more often than organizations invest their savings in banks and generally prefer ruble deposits. And there are reasons for this!
What are the types of deposits and what are their fundamental differences
Depending on whether an individual or legal entity opens it, whether it is a ruble contribution, in foreign currency or in precious metals, the form and content of the contract, the reliability and profitability of the contribution, the taxation of income on it, the procedure for compensation in case of bankruptcy will be determined Bank and some other aspects.
When opening a ruble deposit or a foreign currency deposit, an individual / legal entity and a bank conclude a bank deposit / deposit agreement. The ruble deposit can also be certified by a savings / deposit certificate, which is a registered security and provides additional opportunities to its owner. The deposit in precious metals is drawn up by an impersonal metal account agreement.
Today, the most protected are individuals, since the funds attracted by banks in rubles and foreign currency from them are insured, this issue is governed by the provisions of Federal Law No. 177-ФЗ dated December 23, 2003 “On Deposit Insurance in the Banks of the Russian Federation ”, The features will be written below. Deposits of legal entities (excluding small businesses) and deposits in precious metals are not included in the deposit insurance system.
In addition, according to article 214.2. Tax Code of the Russian Federation (NK RF), income in the form of interest received on deposits in banks is subject to taxation if there is an excess of the amount of interest accrued in accordance with the terms of the contract over the amount of interest calculated on ruble deposits based on the refinancing rate of the Bank of – from December 17, 2018, it is equal to 7.75% – increased by 5 percentage points, and for deposits in foreign currency on the basis of 9% per annum. According to clause 2 of Article 224 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, in this case the tax rate will be equal to 35%. In fact, if you look at the standard offers of banks, we will not be able to find such high interest rates on deposits, therefore depositors do not pay tax on deposit income in practice. However, regarding the contribution in precious metals, the situation will be different, it is not subject to Article 214.2 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, and it will in any case pay income tax at a rate of 13% for residents of the Russian Federation or at a rate of 30% for non-residents of the Russian Federation.
The profitability of a ruble bank deposit will depend on the amount and term for which the deposit is made, the amount of interest varies on this. The currency contribution will also be influenced by the exchange rate, however, given that it is unstable, there can be both positive and negative dynamics on the result when the period for which the contribution was made comes to an end. A deposit in precious metals is good for long-term investments, since its profitability is determined by the growth of metal quotes, as a rule, it grows steadily, but extremely slowly.
Several rules for individuals who have decided to open a bank deposit
It seems that the most convenient will be to pick up a bank deposit among a line of term ruble deposits, while it is important to observe certain rules in order not to be deceived and not have unwarranted hopes and ideas about their rights and obligations.
Before entering into a bank deposit agreement:
1. Monitor the sites of various banks for the proposed average interest rates in the region (too high a percentage should be alerted).
2. Always choose a bank with a good business reputation included in the deposit insurance system: check the information on the selected bank on the website of the Bank of Russia and the Deposit Insurance Agency, there are also useful internet resources on this issue, such as: sravni.ru and banki. ru.
3. Remember that the insured is a bank deposit (deposit) of up to 1,400,000 rubles, including interest on capitalization on the amount of the deposit. Please note that if more than one account has been opened in one bank in the name of one person, then the insurance amount will also not exceed the specified amount in the aggregate of all accounts / deposits in this bank. But not all cash is insured.
Cash is insured if the depositor is:
individual, regardless of citizenship;
legal entity officially classified as a small enterprise.